Sunday 26th of February 2017 10:58:22 AM

CSS Style Guide

of an element. Negative values are permitted, but caution is recommended.

margin-leftIE4 P/P IE5 P/Y NN4 B/B Op3 Y/-

This sets the size of the left margin of an element. Negative values are permitted, but caution is recommended.

Example

P {margin-left: 3em;}
name="INDEX-1381" />margin-rightIE4 P/P IE5 P/Y NN4 B/B Op3 Y/-

This sets the size of the right margin

 

This Style Guide explains the markup and design requirements for web projects, along with various standards and best practices.

projects authored in valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional and styled with valid Cascading Style Sheets will be described here. See the XHTML and CSS sections below for details. Additional sections of this Style Guide, coming soon, will provide information on writing for the web, naming and filing your documents, and other useful topics and guidelines.

XHTML: Guidelines & Benefits

Library projects must be authored in structural XHTML 1.0 Transitional. Page authors should follow accessibility guidelines in compliance with U.S. Law, and so that our site’s content will be made available to the widest possible number of people, browsers, and Internet devices. In addition, all XHTML must validate.

XHTML Guidelines
The rules of XHTML as compared to HTML—an easy transition
What is XML?
A brief introduction to the foundation of XHTML
XHTML Benefits
Four key benefits of converting from HTML to XHTML
XHTML Authoring Tips & Tools
Simplifying the work process—includes tips on thinking structurally, and tools for hand-coders and Dreamweaver users
XHTML Accessibility Tips
Making sure your pages can be read by all visitors, browsers, and devices
XHTML Validation
Ensuring interoperability by avoiding errors and sticking to standards

CSS: Style Sheets & Tips

Library projects must use valid Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to control typography, color, and other layout elements. Style Sheets must be linked in a way that accommodates the capabilities of new and old browsers.

CSS Guidelines
Tips on authoring and linking to Style Sheets
Steal These Style Sheets!
Style Sheets for your use in Library projects
CSS Validation
Ensuring that your Style Sheets are error-free (same as XHTML validation)

A number of valid Style Sheets have been provided for your use. If you wish to create your own Style Sheets, please discuss your requirements with the Branch Library’s Web Coordinator.

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9.1.3.2. Limiting width and height

Should it become necessary or desirable, you can place limits on an element's width and height by using the following CSS2 properties, which I'll refer to as the min-max properties.

The names of these properties make them fairly self-explanatory. Here we have one possible solution for the example given in the previous section:

Let's return to the happier realmof how things should work. Thanks to color andbackground-color, you can create some niceeffects. This example is shown in Figure 6-18:

P {color: black;}H1 {color: white; background-color: rgb(20%,20%,20%);}
Figure 6-18

Figure 6-18. A nifty effect for H1 elements

This shows but one example of how displays can be dramaticallychanged with just a few styles. Of course, there are as many tile in all four directions: up, down, left, and right. The only difference background-position makes is in where the tiling starts. Figure 6-51 shows the difference between tiling from the center of the BODY, and from its top left corner.

Figure 6-51

Figure 6-51. The difference between starting a repeat from top left (left) and centering it (right)

Note the differences along the edges of the browser window. When the background repeats from the center, the grid is centered within the viewport, resulting in consistent "clipping" along the

In order to create applications of this category, you might have to define a DTD for your information. Then you have to write classes to import and export information from your XML document(s) (validating using your application's DTD if you have one). You must also write the classes which create the user interface in your application. The user of your application can view and modify information using the GUI (graphical user interface), and they can save (and load) their information to (and from) an XML file (that might use your DTD); in other words, they can save (and load) their information to (and from) an ApplicationML file (where Application is the name of your application). Some examples are AddressBookML, MathML, SVGML, etc.

The classes that import and export information from your ApplicationML file must use the parser and SAX or DOM API in order to import the information. These classes can access this information by using one of the following strategies:

  1. Use DOM to directly manipulate the information stored in the document (which DOM turns into a tree of nodes). This document object is created by the DOM XML parser after it reads in the XML document. This option leads to messy and hard-to-understand code. Also, this works better for document-type data rather than just computer generated data (like data structures and objects used in your code).
  2. Create your own Java object model that imports information from the XML document by using either SAX or DOM. This kind of object model only uses SAX or DOM to initialize itself with the information contained in the XML document(s). Once the parsing and initialization of your object model is completed, DOM or SAX isn't used anymore. You can use your own object model to accessed or modify your information without using SAX or DOM anymore. So you manipulate your information using your own objects, and rely on the SAX or DOM APIs to import the information from your ApplicationML file into memory (as a bunch of Java objects). You can think of this object model as an in-memory instance of the information that came was "serialized" in your XML document(s). Changes made to this object model are made persistent automatically, you have to deal with persistence issues (ie, write code to save your object model to a persistence layer as XML).
  3. STRONG B {font-weight: bolder;} /* bolder still */<P>This paragraph contains elements of increasing weight: there is an<SPAN>SPAN element which contains a <STRONG>strongly emphasizedelement, and that contains a <B>boldface element</B></STRONG></SPAN>.</P>
    Figure 5-12

    Figure 5-12. Moving up the weight scale

    In the last two nested elements, the computed value offont-weight is increased because of the liberaluse of the keyword bolder. If we were to replace